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The to—day concrete technology development is linked with Portland cement. In the Sect. In the last case cement phase composition must be taken into account as well as the content of mineral additions, especially of cements containing high amount of slag and fly ash.


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This chapter is composed of five sections: 2. Portland cement clinker burning, 2. The phase systems important for cement chemistry, 2. The clinkering process in industrial mixes, 2. Thermochemistry of clinkering process, 2. Phase composition of Portland cements.

How Concrete is Made

The mixtures of natural raw materials contain always low quantity of alkalis and sulphates, which low temperature eutectics are formed. This liquid highly increases the rate of reactions. The clinkering process in industrial mixes is influenced by mineral compositions of raw meal, its fineness, homogeneity and coarse grains of calcite and quartz content. The clinkering process is modified by mineralizers, used in the production of white clinker; the reactions of fluorides and chlorides are discussed.

Other important minor component is phosphorus, which can worsening clinker quality. Thermochemistry of clinker formation and its phase composition, which can be examined with light microscopy even with discovering of meal production shortage finishes this chapter. In Chapter 3 the hydration of clinker phases are presented.

4th Edition

Three sections are devoted consecutively to calcium silicates, aluminates and ferrites phase hydration and the last two describe hydrates present in very low amounts and heat of hardening. The hydration of tricalcium and dicalcium silicate are composed of congruent dissolution of these phases and crystallization of CH and C—S—H. The different models of C—S—H structure is discussed in details as well as the differences in specific surface area determined by nitrogen adsorption. The adsorption of several ions on C—S—H surface is characterised. As a result of tricalcium aluminate hydration large number of metastable phases is formed, which have a layer structure.

Two kinds of these phases are distinguish: AFt and AFm, which form numerous solid solutions. The composition of these phases is presented and special attention is given to ettringite, monosulphate and C 4 AH 13 , which are the most important in cement chemistry. The AFm phases can contain organic cations. Other minor phases can be hydrotalcite and gehlenite hydrate. The heat evolved during hydration of individual clinker phases as well as of different cement types are given. The method of this heat calculation is presented. This chapter contains two sections: 4.


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Cement hydration at room temperature and 4. Hydration of cement in hydrothermal conditions. In the first section the cement paste composition and its changes with time is presented, and the influence of gypsum, as well as its optimum content. Then the accelerators and retarders are discussed, even such untypical as zinc, lead and phosphadte, with the mechanism of their action.

Very important are calcium carbonate, used as mineral addition to cement, as well as potassium sulphate, formed in clinker in modern rotary kiln. In the last time the chromium reducers and grinding aids are introduced frequently to cement, thus their influence is also important. In hydrothermal condition and especially autoclave processes gives great changes of hydrated calcium silicates phases formed; principally C—S—H is transformed in 1. The structure of basic phases and chemistry of solid solutions is presented as well as the influence of heating rate.

In Chapter 5 the following issues are presented: Rheological properties of concrete, Relationship between the microstructure and strength of cement paste and Deformation of the paste. Cement paste is a Bingham fluid and shows as a rule the thixotropic behaviour.

The flow of the paste can be relatively well presented by several models from which Bingham and Hershel—Bulkely are the most frequently used.

The paste properties are directly related to its microstructure, and two principal models are important: of Powers and of Feldman and Sereda. In the paste different kinds of water can be distinguish: adsorbed on the surface of solid phases, chiefly on amorphous C—S—H, then in pores and in hydrates. These kinds of water can be divided into two groups: evaporable and non evaporable one.

The pore structure is very important for paste properties; gel pores equal micropores are related to C—S—H phase, but mesopores and macropores diminish strength and durability of the paste. Entrained air in many concrete mixes may also take up another 5 to 8 percent.

Almost any natural water that is drinkable and has no pronounced taste or odor may be used as mixing water for concrete. Excessive impurities in mixing water not only may affect setting time and concrete strength, but can also cause efflorescence, staining, corrosion of reinforcement, volume instability, and reduced durability. Concrete mixture specifications usually set limits on chlorides, sulfates, alkalis, and solids in mixing water unless tests can be performed to determine the effect the impurity has on the final concrete.

Aggregates comprise 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete. A continuous gradation of particle sizes is desirable for efficient use of the paste. In addition, aggregates should be clean and free from any matter that might affect the quality of the concrete. Soon after the aggregates, water, and the cement are combined, the mixture starts to harden. All portland cements are hydraulic cements that set and harden through a chemical reaction with water call hydration. During this reaction, a node forms on the surface of each cement particle.

The node grows and expands until it links up with nodes from other cement particles or adheres to adjacent aggregates. Once the concrete is thoroughly mixed and workable it should be placed in forms before the mixture becomes too stiff. During placement, the concrete is consolidated to compact it within the forms and to eliminate potential flaws, such as honeycombs and air pockets.

Cement Standards and Concrete Standards

Floating produces a relatively even, but slightly rough, texture that has good slip resistance and is frequently used as a final finish for exterior slabs. If a smooth, hard, dense surface is required, floating is followed by steel troweling. Nevertheless, In a few cases, we have to reject your admissions. During August , you will be able to upload the final full papers to the dedicated website area. The deadline for the full papers is October 31 st , During next three months the reviewers will evaluate your full papers.

Authors of agreed full papers will be asked to enlarge the abstract to the extended version for the printed Book for Abstracts. We wish you much success in your efforts. Menu Search site. Your browser does not support the video tag. We sincerely look forward to meeting you in Prague in September More information. Deadline: June 30, We expect that the decision of papers distribution between oral and poster presentations will be communicated to authors in early May. Don't miss this opportunity! Full Paper Submission Deadline: January 10,

Types of Cement